Opportunities And Strategies For Small And Medium Businesses In Emerging Countries

A Foundational Report
By Sal Yazbeck, Ph.D.

Overview | TOC | Charts, Diagrams, Tables

March 2019 | Doc# SY010319
Paper Dimensions: 8 1/2 x 11 in
Pages: 100+

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In this timely report, Sal Yazbeck looks at the changing nature of the post-harvest segment (temperature-controlled transportation and storage) of the global perishable fruits and vegetables supply chain to analyze some of the fundamental market drivers, challenges, and opportunities facing this logistics ecosystem.

In his analysis, Yazbeck makes a case towards how US small and medium businesses (SMBs) -- IoT device manufacturers, cold food transportation, and cold storage operators -- can collaborate to enter emerging market countries, find ways to build the next generation of responsive temperature-controlled logistics, and develop sustainable business models that help reduce food loss, engage small farmers, and enhance local economies.

Taking an international business approach, and referred to as a Foundational Report, the research helps establish an informed baseline role for forward-looking companies seeking innovative business models to enter emerging markets and build the next generation of data-connected post-harvest logistics models.

The approach draws connections among broad topic silos as logistics and technology models, country infrastructure types, regulatory trends, partnership approaches, foreign direct investment, and economic conditions, among others to foster a concerted view of the discussion.

As well, it presents a view of the problem, challenges, and opportunities in post-harvest logistics, and offers sample approaches to emerging markets potentially useful for SMB strategy considerations.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary  x

Chapter 1. Introduction 1


Chapter 2. Legacy Food Logistics’ Relevance To Emerging Markets
2.1 The US Supermarket: A Brief History of Supply-Driven Logistics
2.2 How Emerging Markets and SMBs Fit into the Conversation 8

Chapter 3. Food Supply Challenges: Background And Trends
3.1 Significance of Global Population Growth
3.2 Urbanization and The Sustainability Principle
3.3 Climate Change and Agricultural Impact 13

Chapter 4. A Divided Cold Food Chain: Industrialized vs. Developing Regions
4.1 Global Fruits & Vegetables Production- A 2017 Overview
4.2 Impact of Food Loss and Waste: An Infrastructure vs Behavioral
4.3 Briefing: A Tale Of Two Countries 21


Chapter 5. Defining the Small and Medium Size Business (SMB)
5.1 The US Approach – A General Introduction
5.2 Internet of Things (IoT) Device Manufacturers
5.3 Reefer Transportation Operators
5.4 Cold Storage Operators 29

Chapter 6. Change and The Disruptive Potential of Collaborative Logistics
6.1 Vertically-Integrated Legacy Logistics: Changing Times
      6.1.1 Traditional Big Supermarket Approach
      6.1.2 Re-emergence of the “Digital Grocer”
6.2 A “New Order”: Open, Collaborative Logistics
      6.2.1 Disruptive Potential of SMBs
      6.2.2 Building the network – where SMBs can make a difference
      6.2.3 Why Collaboration Among SMBs Is Important 43


Chapter 7. IoT Network Foundation and Rollout Trends in Emerging Economies
7.1 IoT Background and Relevance
7.2 Terrestrial IoT Network Technologies
      7.2.1 3GPP Standards
      7.2.2 Non-3GPP Standards
      7.2.3 Regional GSM Frequency Band Significance
7.3 Satellite IoT Network Technologies
7.4 Country Briefing: Terrestrial Network Upgrades and Rollouts 55

Chapter 8. IoT Device Manufacturers: From Products to Services
8.1 Industry Background and Challenges
8.2 Legacy Hardware Sales Model
      8.2.1 Commoditization of Components
8.3 Selling Hardware as a Service (HaaS) 60

Chapter 9. IoT in Post-Harvest Cold Logistics
9.1 Logistics Service Provider (LSP) Models
9.2 Reefer Transportation Operators
      9.2.1 Service Area Setting
      9.2.2 Device Format and Use Options
      9.2.3 Geography and Terrain
      9.2.4 Deploy IoT In-house or Outsource?
9.3 Cold Storage Operators
      9.3.1 Storage Operator Models
      9.3.2 Importance of VASs to Small Farmers
      9.3.3 IoT for Cold Storage Applications 74


Chapter 10. Country Initiatives and Trends for Attracting Investments
10.1 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Country Infrastructure
10.2 Infrastructure Challenges to FDI Consideration
        10.2.1 Physical Infrastructure Challenges
        10.2.2 Soft Infrastructure Challenges
10.3 Impact of Change-Drivers On Emerging Markets Infrastructure
        10.3.1 Ecosystem Opportunities and Benefits
10.4 Change: Emerging Countries Are Taking Notice
10.5 Composite Indices as FDI Assessment Tools
10.6 Briefing: Trends in Industry and Government-Led Organizations 85

Chapter 11. Playing the Part: Pursuing Sustainable Business Strategies
11.1 Economic Backdrop: The Current Global Environment
        11.1.1 Market Uncertainty and FDI Activity
        11.1.2 FDI Considerations and Global Security
11.2 Identifying the (Right) Country
        11.2.1 The Lure of Emerging Markets
        11.2.2 Composite Indices Alone Are Inadequate As Decision Tools
        11.2.3 Following the Herd – Two Thoughts
        11.2.4 Modify The Business Model (But Not the Core Values)
11.3 Building a Supportive Business Climate
        11.3.1 Joining Alliance and Organization Groups
        11.3.2 Creating Smart Partnerships
        11.3.3 Engage in Reputation Building
11.4 Developing Successful Case Studies
        11.4.1 The Needed Story 97

Chapter 12. Looking Ahead
12.1 The Next 5 to 10 Years 98

References 100

Charts, Diagrams, Tables



  • Chart 3-1: Global Population Forecast to 2050, based on UN’s 2017 population updates
  • Chart 3-2: Trends in global urban migration as a percent of total population, 1950-2050
  • Chart 4-3: Global fruits and vegetables production, per region, for 2017
  • Chart 4-4: Share of food loss and waste volume in developing and industrialized countries
  • Chart 8-5: Theoretical effects on device vendor revenues based on decrease in component costs
  • Chart 8-6: Theoretical effects of creating value-added services on vendor revenue margins


  • Diagram 6-1: Comparative Logistics Mile Framework for Developing and International Markets
  • Diagram 6-2: Collaborative Post-Harvest Scenario For a Developing Country


  • Table 4-1: Potential number of people that can be fed, per year, with post-harvest fruits and vegetables loss estimates for 2017, based on two dietary levels of consumption
  • Table 7-1: Select LTE-M Specifications
  • Table 7-2: Select NB-IoT Specifications
  • Table 7-3: Select EC-GSM-IoT Specifications
  • Table 7-4: Select LoRa Specifications
  • Table 7-5: Select Sigfox Specifications
  • Table 7-6: Select LPWA Specifications Summary Table

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